A flat shape with height and width but no depth.
An illusion of depth. A form having height, width, and depth and giving the illusion of distance from the viewer.
A work of art in which a natural object is simplified and exaggerated to emphasize important qualities.
An art movement that originated in the United States in the 1940s and 1950s that emphasized spontaneous personal expression in large paintings, including action painting.
A figure that appears to be in motion. Often diagonal lines are used to achieve this effect.
A style of abstract painting that uses techniques such as the dribbling or splashing of paint to achieve a spontaneous effect.
Existing, can be felt by touching.
The literal tactile quality or feel of the paint or of surfaces.
The technique of building up layers of clay.
Adire is the name given to indigo dyed cloth produced by Yoruba women of south western Nigeria using a variety of resist dye techniques.
To announce or praise a product, service, etc. in some public medium of communication in order to induce people to buy or use it.
Showing 3-D distance or depth in a painting by representing objects further away as smaller, with lighter tones and less clarity. Also called atmospheric perspective.
The quality of beauty that is perceived in a work of art.
The life or existence believed to follow death.
The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form.
A turn of the 20th century idea in art, music and literature depicting urban life.
An ancient Greek vase with a large, tapering body and two handles that was used for storage of oil, wine, or grain.
Colors close together on the color wheel, such as blue, blue-green, and green.
The space between two intersecting lines.
Having, forming, or consisting of an angle or angles.
Ornament or surface decoration with intricate curves and flowing lines based on plant forms.
A series of arches supported on piers or columns.
A curved structure designed to span an opening, usually made of stone. Roman arches are semicircular; Islamic and Gothic arches come to a point at the top.
The study of human culture based on physical remains.
Pertaining to parts of a building such as a column, arch, facade, etc.
Enclosed space for specific purposes, such as buildings. A public art form.
An international art movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by depiction of flowers, leaves, and vines. French for `new art`, the movement influenced both design and architecture.
The signature of an artist on his or her picture.
Relative worth, merit, or importance of a piece of art.
A principle of design referring to an arrangement of forms that do not appear the same on either side of an imaginary line. Asymmetry adds liveliness to a composition, but to avoid lopsidedness, it is usually balanced by equilibrium.
A way of suggesting distance in a painting by showing objects further away as smaller, with lighter tones and less clarity, to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects. Also called aerial perspective.
Objects or characteristics that help identify a person or personality.
Drawing that comes from the subconscious, where the artist is not drawing any particular object.
An implied straight line in the center of a form or composition, often an imaginary vertical line.
An ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley that flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II.
The part of a picture that appears farthest away. Objects in the background are located highest on the picture plane and are smaller than objects in the middle ground or foreground.
A principle of design referring to the harmonious relationship of visual weight, including symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial balance.
Before Common Era. (also B.C.)
The balance of identical or nearly identical visual weight, size, shape, or placement on both sides of an imaginary axis.
A view from above, looking down on something, as from a bird's perspective.
Indistinct or hazy in outline.
The relationship between all parts of the body, including distance and size.A human body appears in proportion if it is approximately 7 to 8 times the height of the head.
A decorative strip around the edge of something.
An alloy of copper and tin, often used in sculpture.
The lines in paint created by a paintbrush. They can be distinguished by their direction, thickness, texture, and quality. Artists may make individual brushstrokes smooth, to achieve a realistic quality, or they may make their brushstrokes obvious.
An artistic style from the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium), characterized by iconography, formal structure, shallow depth, and rich colors.
The art of beautiful writing or printing.
In architecture, the top part or head of a column or pillar.
A linen cloth or papyrus mixed with plaster and water, used to make the innermost mask or panel for the mummified body.
An exaggerated drawing that shows humor or makes a social comment.
A sculpture technique in which a design is made by cutting away from a block of material, such as wood, clay, plaster, or stone.
The shadow created by something blocking the light source.
Cave paintings are paintings on cave walls and ceilings, and the term is used especially for those dating to prehistoric times.
Objects made of clay hardened into a relatively permanent state by firing.
A formal event performed on a special occasion.
The aggregate of features and traits that form the individual nature of some person or thing.
A group of North American Indian people of the western plains, formerly in central Minnesota and North and South Dakota, and now divided between Montana and Oklahoma.
Italian word for the strong contrast of light and shade.
Traditional Chinese painting that shows the artist's conception of a scene from nature. It is usually painted with tones of black ink and few, if any, colors.
The intensity of a color, from bright to dull.
A round shape where of all points are at the same distance from its center.
A style based on the ancient Greek and Roman models in literature or art, or to later systems modeled on them.
Manuscript pages held together by stitching: the earliest form of book, replacing the scrolls and wax tablets of earlier times.
In architecture, a decorative sunken panel on the underside of a ceiling.
A ceramic technique in which objects are constructed by winding clay in concentric rings or spirals.
A composition made of cut-up materials, such as paper, cloth, photographs, or found materials, to form a design. From the French word coller, to paste or glue. Also called relief sculpture, assemblage, and construction.
A row of columns, usually spanned or connected by beams (lintels).
Element of art—also called hue.
A style of painting begun in the 1950s to 1970s, characterized by abstracted areas of color meant to evoke emotional responses. Helen Frankenthaler and Mark Rothko developed this style.
A circular diagram in which primary and secondary colors are arranged sequentially so that related colors are next to each other and complementary colors are opposite each other.
Color is sometimes used to represent a feeling or emotion that is commonly associated with that color. For example, the color red sometimes indicates anger, fear, or bravery.
A cylindrical pillar, often fluted, that usually supports a building, but can be ornamental or free standing too.
A term coined by Robert Rauschenburg to describe his work in which painting and sculpture are combined.
To honor the memory of someone or some event.
Colors located opposite each other on the color wheel: red/green, yellow/purple, blue/orange. When mixed together, they produce a neutral color, and when placed next to one another, they make each other appear more intense.
A figure or structure composed of a variety of distinct parts. Composite animals combine the head of one animal, and the body, legs, and tail or details of other animals.
The arrangement of different elements of art, including line, color, shape, and space, into a unified whole by means of principles of design, such as balance, emphasis, and movement.
Having a surface that is curved or rounded inward.
Circles or spheres having a common center.
Objects and materials that are meant to be used up.
Attachment to materialistic values or possessions.
Any object that can be used to hold things. Containers in paintings often show textures, such as metal, ceramics, or weaving, that reveal the skill of the artist.
An episodic representation of a story in which a certain figure appears more than once in a single scene.
The outer edge of an object that separates one area from another. Contour implies a 3-D form, while outline implies a 2-D, flat shape.
A principle of design referring to the difference in brightness between the light and dark areas of a picture.
Lines that come together (intersect) from different directions.
Having a surface that is curved or rounded outward.
The hues on the side of the color wheel containing blue and green. Cool colors include green, blue-green, blue, blue-violet, and violet.
A style of dress, including garments, accessories, and hairstyle, especially as characteristic of a particular country, period, or people.
The shape of a new moon: curved, with a point at either end.
A standard of judgment or criticism for evaluating something.
A series of parallel lines going in one direction, with an overlapping set going in a different, often perpendicular, direction. Indicates lights and darks, or shading.
A three dimensional solid object with 6 square faces.
A style of art developed in early 20th-century Paris by Picasso and Braque based on simultaneous views of a single object, in which the subject is broken apart and reassembled in abstract form. It emphasizes geometric shapes.
Customs or practices associated with a particular culture and passed on to generations.
Bending without angles, as if following a rounded form.
An organic shape formed or characterized by curving lines.
The sense of 3-D distance on a 2-D surface. See Distance, Perspective.
Both the process and the result of structuring the elements of art; composition.
A small, elaborated element of a work of art.
Slanted. Diagonal lines contrast with vertical and horizontal lines, giving a feeling of movement or action.
A figure with four equal sides forming two inner obtuse angles and two inner acute angles; a rhombus or lozenge.
The space between two objects, or the illusion of depth on a flat picture plane.
In architecture, a hemispherical roof made of an arch rotated 360 degrees on its vertical axis.
An artwork usually completed with dry materials, such as pencil, charcoal, chalk, crayon, pastels, or pen and ink.
A period during the 1930’3 when severe dust storms caused major damage to crops in drought stricken plains of Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas.
Pertaining to vigorous activity, energetic.
A principle of design referring to something of special importance, usually shown by prominent positioning or through repetition or color.
Space that is left blank.
A balance of elements in a composition resulting from symmetry or from a balance of visual weight on one side and special interest, such as intense color or complex texture, on the other.
To make a drawing or design on metal or glass using a wax or acid process. To stand out and be clearly defined.
An indication of feeling, spirit, character, seen on the face or in a gesture, or heard in the voice.
Art style. A 20th-century style in which artists showed bold, emotional, and personal feeling in their art using symbolic or invented color.
The lines, colors, shapes or composition that effectively convey, or express, the feelings or meaning of its creator.
Lines that show movement and emotion.
The height of the viewer's eyes above the ground plane.
In architecture, the front exterior of a building.
Pertaining to parts that make up the face, eyes, nose, ears lips etc.
The distance and size relationships between the eyes, nose, lips, ears, chin, and forehead.
Ornamental, decorative, not plain; extravagant.
A creation of the imagination; an illusion or daydream.
Art style. A style of painting using bright, contrasting color and simplified shapes, introduced in Paris in the early 20th century. The name `les fauves` is French for `the wild beasts.`
Realistic portraits painted on wood and placed on mummies commonly found in Fayum, Egypt.
The distinct parts of a face or a landscape.
From the late 1960’s, art that reflects and celebrates women's lives and experiences.
The relationship of the picture surface (ground) to the images (figure). The figure is the positive space and the ground (also called background) is the empty, or negative, space.
Art created for purely aesthetic expression. Painting and sculpture are the best known fine arts.
Having little or no illusion of depth, usually a single color without highlights or shading filling a space.
The visual center of interest, or focus.
Art style. Art made by people who have had no formal, academic training but whose works are part of a local or regional style. Folk painters often record the ordinary activities of life using simple, flat figures and decorative designs.
A complete assortment of printing type of one size.
The part of an image that appears to be closest to the viewer. Objects in the foreground appear larger and brighter than those farther away. They occupy the lower portion of the picture.
Perspective applied to a single object in an image for a 3-D effect. Often results in distortion, with the long axis appearing to project toward the viewer.
An element of art referring to a shape that is 3-D and appears to have volume.
Components in the making and analyzing of art. They vary somewhat but typically include the following: color, value, form, line, space, shape, and texture.
The relative length, width, and shape of an artwork's surface.
An open structure used to hold a painting or a closed border of drawn or printed lines.
Wall painting in water-based paint on moist plaster. Mostly from the 14th to the 16th centuries, before the development of oil paints.
A pose in figure drawing or sculpture in which figures face forward.
A prop, or pivot point at the center of balance.
Actual size or life size.
Blurred or indistinct.
Scenes of everyday life popular from the 17th century to the 19th century.
Regular shapes, such as squares, circles, rectangles, triangles, spirals, zigzags, etc.
The action of a figure in its position or its movement.
Covered with gold foil, gold colored.
In ceramics, a glassy coating applied to seal and decorate surfaces. Glaze may be colored, transparent, or opaque.
Beings with supernatural attributes and powers, idealized or worshipped by humans in some religions.
The division of a given unit of length into two parts such that the ratio of the shorter to the longer equals the ratio of the longer part to the whole.
Natural occurring rock forms admired for their sculptural and spiritual properties.
Based on line drawing rather than color, it is often called commercial or advertising art. Includes the design of posters, labels, booklets, and packages.
Unfired clay objects dried to room temperature.
A geometric construct of squares or rectangles used to enlarge an outline or drawing.
Painted in monochrome, usually gray or brown, to represent relief.
The natural environment of an organism.
Shapes that are precisely defined by sharp edges. A term first used in the 1950s.
An African American literary and art movement in the uptown Manhattan neighborhood of Harlem in the mid- and late-1920s.
Having a pattern of brightly colored diamond shapes.
A principle of design that refers to a way of combining elements of art in a consistent, orderly, or pleasing arrangement.
Parallel lines in a series used to darken the value of an area.
Writing symbols that represent objects and objects and ideas rather than sounds. Hieroglyphic forms of writing were used in ancient Egypt, Crete, Asia Minor, and Central America.
A high horizon line places an emphasis on objects in the foreground.
The artistic style of early 16th century painting in Florence and Rome; characterized by technical mastery and heroic composition and humanistic content.
An area or a spot in a drawing, painting, or photograph that is strongly illuminated.
A term for paintings which depict an event in history.
The implied or actual line where the earth and sky meet. The horizon line matches the eye level on a 2-D surface.
Parallel to the horizon.
A color or a wavelength of light, such as green or red. The spectrum is usually divided into six basic hues: red, yellow, purple, blue, green, and orange.
A cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized secular concerns as a result of the rediscovery and study of the literature, art, and civilization of ancient Greece and Rome.
A graphic or simple descriptive picture that represents recognizable objects or people.
Portraits or objects that have been altered or modified to present perfect or ideal types.
The effort of an artist to represent the visual world. The representation of depth on a flat surface is an illusion.
A thick application of paint resulting in visible brushstrokes. An Italian term.
A line that is visually suggested by the arrangement of forms or lights and darks.
Art style. A painting style originating in France about 1870 that emphasizes the momentary effect of light on color, casual subjects, outdoor painting, and expressive brushstrokes.
The brightness or dullness of a color.
To connect or interweave by or as if lacing together.
Of the people, language or culture following the principles and beliefs as stated in the Qu’ran. Typically, though not entirely, Islamic art has focused on the depiction of patterns and Arabic calligraphy, rather than on figures.
Type of dentin present in the tusks of elephants, and the teeth of hippos and walruses. It can be carved into a vast variety of shapes and objects such as jewelry, sculpture and furniture inlay. Ivory trade is banned in much of the world.
An uneven line with sharp points or protrusions.
A broad term including wood block prints, scrolls, jade carvings, screens and textiles created by artists of Japanese heritage.
A Hopi Indian doll carved from cottonwood root in representation of a kachina and given as a gift to a child or used as a household decoration.
Colorfully patterned cloth traditionally woven by hand in Ghana.
An oven in which pottery or ceramic ware is fired.
A painting whose subject is natural scenery, such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and lakes.
A specific plan for a design.
The direction from which visible light appears, usually the sun, a window, or a lamp.
An itinerant painter of 18th-century America who usually had little formal training.
An element of art that may be 2-D (pencil on paper), 3-D (wire), or implied (the edge of a shape or form). Also the direction implied by the angle of an object, such as vertical, horizontal, or diagonal.
A system of drawing a mathematically derived series of converging lines that intersect at a vanishing point on the horizon to give the illusion of depth on a 2-D surface. It determines the relative size of objects from foreground to background.
Printing from a metal or stone surface on which the printing areas are made ink-receptive.
A time well before the present; the distant past.
A piece of equipment used in weaving.
A relief in sculpture that protrudes only slightly from the surrounding surface material.
A book or document written by hand.
A small model of a figure, sculpture, or building.
A covering for all or part of the face, worn to conceal one's identity.
The manufacture of goods in large quantities using standardized designs and assembly-line techniques.
A material and technique used by an artist, such as oil pastels, watercolor, or collage.
An ancient region in Western Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers: now part of Iraq.
A situation in which a word or thing that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison.
The time in European history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance (from about 500 A.D. to about 1350.)
The area between the foreground and background in a picture. Often the area showing action.
A niche in the wall of a mosque or a room in the mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca.
Part of the American Indian Mogollon culture which settled in southwest New Mexico and produced distinctive pottery in 1000-1150 A.D.
A small painting executed with great detail.
Art style. A nonrepresentational style of sculpture and painting using restricted visual elements, such as simple geometric shapes and limited colors. The style became popular in the late 1960s.
Blended together into one unit or mass.
A technique using two or more artistic media, such as ink and pastels, combined in a single composition or artwork.
In painting, the use of light and shadow to give the appearance of 3-D forms. In sculpture, a technique in which a material like clay is shaped to produce a form.
Referring to recent times or the present.
Consisting of a single color and may include its tints and shades.
A single print produced by pressing paper on a flat surface over a design prepared with ink or paint.
An impression or feeling in a painting created by the use of color and line.
A work of art consisting of pieces of colored marble or glass (tesserae) embedded in plaster.
A specific design that is repeated to create a pattern.
A principle of design referring to the arrangement of parts that directs the movement of the viewer’s eyes around the work.
A combination of two or more media, such as textiles and paint, for 2-D or 3-D compositions.
Deceased body that has been embalmed or preserved, especially as prepared for burial in ancient Egypt.
A large painting on a wall, generally on a public building. A fresco mural is painted on wet plaster.
A public building where works of art are exhibited. A gallery is a small museum where works of art are for sale.
Colors or shades softened by adding the color complement.
A traditional story explaining aspects of the natural world or cultural and societal ideals.
A story or account of events or experiences.
Materials found in nature, such as stone, clay, bark, roots, and wood.
A fine powder made from organic materials such as yellow ochre and red iron oxide that are used as the coloring agent for paint, crayons, chalk, and ink.
Art style. Art based on the direct observation of a scene or figure and which uses colors and shading to give an appearance of reality.
Symbols that represent objects from the natural world, such as the sun, moon, and water.
The area around the objects in a painting, sometimes called the background or empty space. Seen in relation to foreground or figure shapes, it is the opposite of positive space, which is space actually occupied by forms.
A French art style and movement inspired by Ancient Greek and Roman art and architecture popular in the mid 18th century.
Colors not associated with any single hue. Blacks, whites, grays, and dull gray-browns. A neutral can be made by mixing complementary hues.
Art that has no recognizable subject and might be based on color or on abstract or idealized shapes.
An unclothed human figure.
The reddish color of iron oxides in natural clay and pigments.
Pigments mixed with gum and water, and pressed into a dried stick form for use as crayons.
A phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change. Omens may be considered good or bad, but the term is more often used in a foreboding sense.
A mathematical system for showing the illusion of spatial distance on 2-D surfaces, in which diagonal lines converge toward a single vanishing point located on the horizon line. Developed in 15th-century Italy.
A word that imitates the sound it represents.
Art style. A 20th-century movement in which the artist includes optical illusions in the design to expand the visual sensations of the observer.
A visually perceived image that differs from objective reality.
Free-form curving shapes that are not mechanical or geometric but based on natural forms, such as curvilinear, irregular, or biomorphic.
Straight diagonal lines drawn to connect points around the edges of a picture to the vanishing point.
A line marking the outer contours or boundaries of an object or figure.
An egg-shaped or elliptical form or figure.
A technique for creating the illusion of depth by placing one object in front of another.
Represented in paint.
An artwork made by applying paint to a surface.
Lines or shapes in a series, in which every part of the line or shape is an equal distance away from the one next to it.
The temple of Athena Parthenos on the Acropolis at Athens, completed c. 438 BCE by Ictinus and Callicrates and decorated by Phidias; regarded as the finest Doric temple.
A drawing stick made of pigments ground with chalk mixed with gum water. Pastels are generally applied in masses, like paint, rather than lines, like crayons. First popular in Paris in the 18th century.
A principle of design in which combinations of repeated lines, colors, and shapes are combined.
White dots to show the sparkling effect of light.
Meeting a given line or surface at right angles.
Of the people, language, or culture of Persia or the Persian Empire, now called Iran, which was an ancient Asian empire, at its height extending from Egypt and the Aegean to India.
The suggestion of 3-D (all around) space on a 2-D (flat) surface.
A form of journalism that uses images as part of a narrative to tell a news story.
Method of applying inks to paper or similar materials using a nylon stencil produced by photographic means.
A substance, usually a powder, that supplies the coloring agent for paint, crayons, chalk, and ink.
The location or arrangement of an object in its environment.
Ordinary, simple, or unostentatious; with little or no ornamentation or decoration.
A position from which something is observed.
Art style. A system of painting developed by Georges Seurat in the nineteenth century using tiny dots or points of color in which colors are systematically painted in areas of analogous or complementary colors, producing a vibrant surface.
A game played on horseback by two teams of three or four players with long-handled mallets for driving a small wooden ball through the opponents' goal.
Of the people, language, or culture of Polynesia, or "many islands", in the central and southern Pacific Ocean, including Hawaii, Tahiti, and Samoa.
Art style. A style in the 1950s that magnifies popular symbols, visual cliches, and everyday subject matter in both serious and satirical ways. Subjects are derived from mass media such as comic strips and brand-name packages.
The image of a person's face, made of a 2-D medium or sculpture.
To assume or hold a particular position or posture.
The areas of a picture that show objects or figures as opposed to the background or space around the objects.
In architecture, a structural system that uses two or more uprights, or posts, to support a horizontal beam, or lintel, which spans the space between them.
Art style. A collection of styles of artists in France, from about 1885 to 1900, based on the importance of form, symbols, expressiveness, and psychological intensity, in reaction to Impressionism, which concentrated on the effects of light.
A form of graphic design used to promote a product or announce an event through a brief message.
Art work that was created in an era before written history, including cave paintings and pottery.
The hues (red, yellow, and blue) from which all other colors are made.
Describes the general ways in which artists arrange the parts of their compositions. These organizers include balance, unity, emphasis, contrast, pattern, movement, and rhythm.
One of multiple impressions of a work of art, usually on paper, made from a master plate or block.
The side view of an object, especially the human head.
To extend or protrude beyond something else.
The relation of one part to the whole or to the other parts (e.g., the size of a head relative to a body). Proportion also refers to the relative sizes, or scale, of the visual elements in a composition.
To project or thrust forward.
The reason for which something exists or is done, made, used, etc.
A term used in abstract expressionist art to describe a tension where things push together and pull apart.
A queen in biblical times who was famous for her beauty, splendor, and wealth. She lived in Abyssinia, a kingdom on the Red Sea in the vicinity of modern Ethiopia and Yemen.
A type of balance based on a circle with rays extending from a point or central focus. Examples: petals of a daisy, spokes of a wheel, the iris of an eye, a star.
The untanned hide of cattle or other animals.
Art style. A type of representational art in which the artist shows as closely as possible what the eyes see.
Pertaining to, characterized by, or given to the representation in literature or art of things as they really are.
To move away or be perceived as moving away from an observer, giving the illusion of space.
A four-sided figure with four right angles and where one set of parallel sides is longer than the other.
Unnamed geometric shapes characterized by straight and angular lines.
Art style. A collection of styles from the 1930s that celebrates life in small-town, rural America. Regional artists include Thomas Hart Benton and Grant Wood.
Artists in the 1930 such as Grant Wood and Thomas Hart Benton who painted rural Americans and scenes depicting the of values of hard work and perseverance.
A vertical or horizontal line or pattern band that marks a section of hieroglyphics.
Sculpture in which the image is raised by carving or scraping away the surface materials.
Period from 1400–1600 after the middle ages when importance was placed on human beings and their environment, science and philosophy. Artists used scientific principles to develop linear perspective, foreshortening in architecture and oil painting.
The recurring use of a line, shape, or color in a work of art, often used to create a pattern.
To stand for; symbolize.
Based on images found in the objective world that can be named or recognized.
A mechanically produced copy of an original work of art.
The war for American independence from Britain, 1775-1783.
A principle of design in which ordered repetition of shapes, lines, or colors indicates a type of movement.
An 18th Century artistic and intellectual style which stressed emotion, freedom and individual imagination rather than classical styles and conventions.
Either a texture that is not smooth with projections or irregularities, or an approximated style that omits certain details.
Shaped like a circle or a ball.
An acronym used for representing the order of colors in a color wheel. R is for red, O for orange, Y for yellow, G for green, B for blue, I for indigo and V for violet.
A typeface without serifs, or embellishments.
The relative size of an object compared to others of its kind, to its environment, or to humans.
To roughen a clay surface in order to firmly attach it to something else.
A partition that protects or divides a room or space, sometimes used as a wall or door.
One who made copies of a manuscript before the invention of printing.
A painting or text on silk or paper that is either displayed on a wall or held by the viewer and is rolled up when not in use.
To shape, mold, or fashion with artistry.
A 3-D work of art formed by carving, modeling, or casting.
A sketch, painting, or photograph of the sea.
The hues orange, green, and violet or purple, produced by mixing equal parts of two primary colors.
A portrait of the artist created by the artist.
A typeface with A fine line finishing off the main strokes of a letter.
A delicate gradation of light and shade in the modeling of figures; often ascribed to da Vinci's work. From the Italian term meaning smoke.
A technique in which a design is scratched through one layer of color to another.
A hue with black added, as opposed to a tint, which is a hue with white added.
An area that is either not illuminated or only partially illuminated.
An element of art that is 2-D and is defined by a line or an edge.
The flat shape or the rounded form that creates a 2-D or 3-D appearance of an object.
Clearly defined or distinct.
A Chinese ink and wash painting, similar to Chinese calligraphy, in which only black ink is used in the painting. Sumi-e is a similar style of Japanese brush painting
A printing process in which ink or paint is forced through a fine screen onto a surface. A coating on the screen allows color to pass through in some places but not others.
Characterized by a series of graceful curves, bends, or turns; winding.
The physical dimensions, proportions, magnitude, or extent of an object.
A preliminary drawing for a painting or a work.
Texture lacking irregularities, roughness, or projections.
A statement about the conditions of human life, usually focusing on people who are socially, politically, or economically disenfranchised.
An element of art referring to methods of indicating distance, depth, or volume.
Cues indicating an object’s position in relation to the picture plane and to other objects, reflecting 3-D space on 2-D surfaces. Techniques include overlap, relative size or scale, highlighting/shading, aerial and vanishing-point perspective.
A shape with four equal-length sides intersecting at four right angles.
A method of applying paint directly to a canvas by pouring or rolling rather than by brushing.
Glass that has been colored, enameled, painted, or stained by having pigments baked onto its surface was used in church windows in the early Renaissance.
A figure usually having five or six points radiating from a center.
Lacking movement or vitality.
A freestanding decorated stone slab set upright in the ground that commemorates a person or event; often used at burial places.
A group of inanimate objects arranged to be painted or drawn, or a painting of the arrangement.
A method of employing dots instead of lines, using brushes, pens, or other art tools.
A carving made in stone.
Without a bend, angle, or curve.
A particular, distinctive appearance or character. A personal mode or execution in any work of art.
Simplified or exaggerated visual form that emphasizes particular design qualities.
The technique of removing layers of clay, stone, wood, or other material from a whole.
Art style. A modern style of art in which artists combine distorted or unrelated objects in dreamlike surroundings, using the subconscious as a source of creativity.
An object or image that represents an idea or thing.
Relating to or using or proceeding by means of symbols.
A color that represents a meaning or association such as white for purity or orange for wealth.
The balance of identical or nearly identical visual weight, size, shape, or placement on either side of an imaginary axis.
A Jewish house of prayer.
A cloth of the Pacific islands made by pounding mulberry or similar barks flat and thin, used for clothing and floor covering.
A wall hanging of textile fabric painted, embroidered, or woven with colorful ornamental designs or scenes.
Water-based paint that uses egg, or casein, as a binder.
A building or place dedicated to the service or worship of a deity or deities. The Greek temple, designed according to set mathematical rules, was the main form of Greek public architecture.
Brownish red clay or “baked earth” used in ancient times for sculpture and pottery, and later in architectural detail. Its reddish color comes from the iron oxides found in clay.
A color resulting from the equal mixture of a primary color with either of the secondary colors adjacent to it on a color wheel.
Bits of colored glass or stone used in making mosaics.
Any cloth or goods produced by weaving, knitting, or felting.
The element of design that refers to the actual or visual roughness of a surface.
Having relatively great extent from one surface or side to the opposite.
Having relatively little extent from one surface or side to the opposite.
A form having height, width, and depth and giving the illusion of distance from the viewer.
A hue diluted with white; a color of less than maximum purity, chromo, or saturation.
Of the people, language, or culture of the northernmost group of Native Americans who live on the Northwest Coast, Western Canada, and southern Alaska.
A quality of color with reference to the degree of absorption or reflection of light; a tint or shade; value.
A statue of the human body with the head and limbs omitted or removed.
A tightly rolled paper stump, used for drawing and blending charcoal.
A shape formed by three connecting lines not in a straight line.
A composition based on the outline of a triangle or pyramid, popular in Renaissance art, which gives the impression of stability and balance.
A 2-D representation that is so realistic it looks 3-D and may convince the viewer that it is the actual subject, not a painting. From the French for `fool the eye`.
A flat shape with height and width but no depth.
A way of drawing an object seen from an angle by using two vanishing points to give a more naturalistic representation of space.
A genre of Japanese woodblock prints and paintings popular in 17th-20th c. depicting landscapes, tales of history and scenes from the entertainment district. Ukiyo refers to the rising urban culture in Japan in the late 17th c.
A color applied or seen through another color.
A principle of design that gives oneness to a work of art through the repetition and balance of lines, shapes, colors, and textures in a composition. Unity balances variety.
The lightness or darkness of an area. White is the lightest value; black is the darkest.
An imaginary point on the horizon line at which parallel lines appear to converge.
A principle of design that provides liveliness through differences in the assortment of colors, lines, shapes, and textures in a composition. Variety balances unity, or the sameness of the elements.
An arched structure, usually made of stones, concrete, or bricks, forming a ceiling or roof over a hall, room, or other wholly or partially enclosed construction.
Being situated at right angles, or perpendicular to the horizon.
Pertaining to a style of architecture and furnishings in the period of Queen Victoria’s reign in the mid to late 1800’s characterized by heavy ornamentation, elaborate mouldings and dark woodwork.
The position from which the viewer looks at an object or scene.
Perceptible by the sense of sight; visible.
The illusion of having physical texture.
The amount of space occupied by a 3-D object.
Hues in the red to yellow range on the color wheel, including red-violet, red, red-orange, orange, and yellow-orange. Warm colors appear to be close to the viewer.
The vertical (warp) and horizontal (weft) threads on a loom.
A thin layer of dilute paint, particularly in watercolor. Also, to cover a paper with color.
Paint that uses water-soluble gum as the binder and water as the vehicle. Characterized by transparency. Also, the resulting painting.
Interlacing the threads of the warp (vertical threads) and weft (horizontal threads) on a loom.
The horizontal threads on a loom.
Colorful paintings of flowers, southern scenes, animals and musicians.
Fanciful, capricious, arbitrary.
A type of relief print made from an image that is raised on a block of wood.
A perspective seen from below, looking up at something, as a worm's perspective. The horizon line is usually low in the picture.
Named in 1939, the Work Projects Administration was the largest New Deal agency, employing millions to carry out public works projects, including construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, Yin represents the negative, dark, and feminine, and Yang represents the positive, bright, and masculine, which combine the interaction of opposite and complementary principles.
Of the people, language, or culture of the West African people living mainly in Nigeria.